• Image Quality Assessment is well-known for measuring the perceived image degradation of natural scene images but is still an emerging topic for computer-generated images. This book addresses this problem and presents recent advances based on soft computing. It is aimed at students, practitioners and researchers in the field of image processing and related areas such as computer graphics and visualization. In this book, we first clarify the differences between natural scene images and computer-generated images, and address the problem of Image Quality Assessment (IQA) by focusing on the visual perception of noise. Rather than using known perceptual models, we first investigate the use of soft computing approaches, classically used in Artificial Intelligence, as full-reference and reduced-reference metrics. Thus, by creating Learning Machines, such as SVMs and RVMs, we can assess the perceptual quality of a computer-generated image. We also investigate the use of interval-valued fuzzy sets as a no-reference metric. These approaches are treated both theoretically and practically, for the complete process of IQA. The learning step is performed using a database built from experiments with human users and the resulting models can be used for any image computed with a stochastic rendering algorithm. This can be useful for detecting the visual convergence of the different parts of an image during the rendering process, and thus to optimize the computation. These models can also be extended to other applications that handle complex models, in the fields of signal processing and image processing.

  • The Asian-Pacific countries as well as India and Russia offer multinational companies all the benefits of booming economies in a world of recession. However, the investor must be aware of the tax regime under which he will operate. This survey presents the rates, definitions of taxable income and the incentives available in a complete, yet concise form. It goes on to review tax minimisation strategies and concludes with a comparison of the overall tax burdens for investors in each country derived from the Devereux/Griffith formulae - a methodology well known within the EU, but applied to this region for the first time.

  • - 21%

    Es ist nahezu zu einer Selbstverständlichkeit geronnen, die Lebensmittelbranche negativ zu bewerten: Convenience, Zusatzstoffe, Konsumententäuschung. Wie berechtigt oder unberechtigt  diese kritische Sicht sein mag, sie greift zu kurz. Natürlich ist die Überflussgesellschaft eine Voraussetzung für die Verbreitung von Adipositas. Natürlich ist die Ernährungskompetenz zurückgegangen, weil nicht wie noch im 19. Jahrhundert über 80% der Deutschen Bauern sind, sondern nur noch maximal 5%. Aber wir haben heute vollkommen vergessen, wie entscheidend die Produktion von und die Versorgung mit Lebensmitteln ist: wir leben gesünder, wir werden viel älter, und wir werden viel gesünder älter. Wenn wir anerkennen, dass wir im Schlaraffenland leben, dann haben wir fundierte Koordinaten für einen kritischen Dialog mit der Lebensmittelindustrie. Dieser Band versammelt deshalb alle Beteiligten rund um das Thema Lebensmittel in Deutschland, um einen vielfältigen Diskurs über Ernährung zu führen.